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Nat Commun:美学者报道蝴蝶伪装的演化史

摘要 : 2017年11月7日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下子刊《Nature Communications》杂志在线发表了美国芝加哥大学Marcus R. Kronforst研究组的一篇研究论文,论文描述了一组凤蝶中不同模拟图案的演化史。

2017年11月7日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下子刊《Nature Communications》杂志在线发表了美国芝加哥大学Marcus R. Kronforst研究组的一篇研究论文,论文描述了一组凤蝶中不同模拟图案的演化史。对比基因组分析揭示这组蝴蝶的拟态的起源,以及不同模仿类型的优点与缺点。 凤蝶科中玉带凤蝶(Papilio polytes)的雌性无毒,但是它们能够模拟多种有毒物种的翅膀图案,以避免遭到捕食者袭击。此前的研究表明这种差异,又称多态性,由单个基因控制—— doublesex(双性)基因。然而,我们对这种“超基因模仿”能力的演化并没有充分的理解。 通过重建doublesex基因的演化历史,Marcus Kronforst及同事发现玉带凤蝶和它们的近缘种的模拟技巧拥有同一个起源,它们的共同祖先已经具有多态性。然而,在200万年里,一些物种有可能在种群规模较小的阶段失去了模仿多态性。同时,某些特定的模拟图案多次独立演化。 虽然模仿多态性被认为是有适应性的,但是结果显示在模仿技能扩张和模仿形态丢失的过程中,机缘巧合也是重要因素。


Tracing the origin and evolution of supergene mimicry in butterflies


Supergene mimicry is a striking phenomenon but we know little about the evolution of this trait in any species. Here, by studying genomes of butterflies from a recent radiation in which supergene mimicry has been isolated to the gene doublesex, we show that sexually dimorphic mimicry and female-limited polymorphism are evolutionarily related as a result of ancient balancing selecion combined with independent origins of similar morphs in different lineages and secondary loss of polymorphism in other lineages. Evolutionary loss of polymorphism appears to have resulted from an interaction between natural selection and genetic drift. Furthermore, molecular evolution of the supergene is dominated not by adaptive protein evolution or balancing selection, but by extensive hitchhiking of linked variants on the mimetic dsx haplotype that occurred at the origin of mimicry. Our results suggest that chance events have played important and possibly opposing roles throughout the history of this classic example of adaptation.

来源: Nature Communications 浏览次数:0


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