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摘要 : 2016年9月14日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志上在线发表了英国圣安德鲁斯大学的Christian Rutz研究组题为“Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow”的研究论文。研究显示夏威夷乌鸦会使用工具觅食。

 2016年9月14日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志上在线发表了英国圣安德鲁斯大学的Christian Rutz研究组题为“Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow”的研究论文。研究显示夏威夷乌鸦会使用工具觅食。





Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow


Dogs are hypersocial with humans, and their integration into human social ecology makes dogs a unique model for studying cross-species social bonding. However, the proximal neural mechanisms driving dog–human social interaction are unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 awake dogs to probe the neural basis for their preferences for social interaction and food reward. In a first experiment, we used the ventral caudate as a measure of intrinsic reward value and compared activation to conditioned stimuli that predicted food, praise or nothing. Relative to the control stimulus, the caudate was significantly more active to the reward-predicting stimuli and showed roughly equal or greater activation to praise vs food in 13 of 15 dogs. To confirm that these differences were driven by the intrinsic value of social praise, we performed a second imaging experiment in which the praise was withheld on a subset of trials. The difference in caudate activation to the receipt of praise, relative to its withholding, was strongly correlated with the differential activation to the conditioned stimuli in the first experiment. In a third experiment, we performed an out-of-scanner choice task in which the dog repeatedly selected food or owner in a Y-maze. The relative caudate activation to food- and praise-predicting stimuli in Experiment 1 was a strong predictor of each dog’s sequence of choices in the Y-maze. Analogous to similar neuroimaging studies of individual differences in human social reward, our findings demonstrate a neural mechanism for preference in domestic dogs that is stable within, but variable between, individuals. Moreover, the individual differences in the caudate responses indicate the potentially higher value of social than food reward for some dogs and may help to explain the apparent efficacy of social interaction in dog training.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0


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