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Nature:英国学者解释夏威夷乌鸦善用工具

摘要 : 2016年9月14日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志上在线发表了英国圣安德鲁斯大学的Christian Rutz研究组题为“Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow”的研究论文。研究显示夏威夷乌鸦会使用工具觅食。

 2016年9月14日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志上在线发表了英国圣安德鲁斯大学的Christian Rutz研究组题为“Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow”的研究论文。研究显示夏威夷乌鸦会使用工具觅食。

这种在鸟类中罕见的行为原本一直局限于鸦科的新喀鸦中。生活在南太平洋新喀里多尼亚岛上的乌鸦(新喀鸦)使用工具的行为,一直令科学家困惑不已。这种不同寻常的行为的演化起源一直神秘莫测,主要因为无法进行同属物种对比。

及同事表明,另一种热带鸦科夏威夷鸦也非常擅长使用工具。21世纪初夏威夷鸦在野外灭绝,目前存活的均为人工饲养。作者对现存109只夏威夷鸦中的104只进行测试,发现其中78%会自发使用棍子试探远处的食物。他们还发现,工具的使用因年龄而异:成年鸦使用工具的比例为93%,而较年幼的比例为47%。此外,至少有两条证据表明,使用工具是该物种的一种天然能力:幼鸦在没有经过训练或社会影响的情况下形成使用工具的能力,而且整个物种均具备熟练使用工具的能力。

由于夏威夷鸦与新喀鸦关系较为疏远,但是均在相似的偏远的热带岛屿环境中演化,作者提出可能发生了工具适应的趋同演化。这反过来可以印证,典型的岛屿生态条件(如本地猎物竞争降低和被捕食风险不高)促进了鸟类使用工具觅食。

原文链接:

Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow

原文摘要:

Dogs are hypersocial with humans, and their integration into human social ecology makes dogs a unique model for studying cross-species social bonding. However, the proximal neural mechanisms driving dog–human social interaction are unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 awake dogs to probe the neural basis for their preferences for social interaction and food reward. In a first experiment, we used the ventral caudate as a measure of intrinsic reward value and compared activation to conditioned stimuli that predicted food, praise or nothing. Relative to the control stimulus, the caudate was significantly more active to the reward-predicting stimuli and showed roughly equal or greater activation to praise vs food in 13 of 15 dogs. To confirm that these differences were driven by the intrinsic value of social praise, we performed a second imaging experiment in which the praise was withheld on a subset of trials. The difference in caudate activation to the receipt of praise, relative to its withholding, was strongly correlated with the differential activation to the conditioned stimuli in the first experiment. In a third experiment, we performed an out-of-scanner choice task in which the dog repeatedly selected food or owner in a Y-maze. The relative caudate activation to food- and praise-predicting stimuli in Experiment 1 was a strong predictor of each dog’s sequence of choices in the Y-maze. Analogous to similar neuroimaging studies of individual differences in human social reward, our findings demonstrate a neural mechanism for preference in domestic dogs that is stable within, but variable between, individuals. Moreover, the individual differences in the caudate responses indicate the potentially higher value of social than food reward for some dogs and may help to explain the apparent efficacy of social interaction in dog training.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0

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