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摘要 : 糖肽抗生素如万古霉素和替考拉宁(对革兰氏阳性细菌感染非常有效)是由非核糖体肽合成酶生物合成的次级代谢产物。活体合成目前是生成这些高度复杂的结构的惟一办法,所以了解生物合成通道有重要临床意义。

糖肽抗生素如万古霉素和替考拉宁(对革兰氏阳性细菌感染非常有效)是由非核糖体肽合成酶生物合成的次级代谢产物。活体合成目前是生成这些高度复杂的结构的惟一办法,所以了解生物合成通道有重要临床意义。在这篇论文中,作者确定了在所有糖肽非核糖体肽合成酶的最后模块中被严格保留下来的以前没有被表征过的 “X-domain”的结构。这个X-domain与两个细胞色素P450发生相互作用,孤立的和与来自替考拉宁生物合成的第一个P450加氧酶蛋白形成复合物的X-domain结构都显示了X-domain的不活泼性质以及对加氧酶的吸引是怎样发生的。


X-domain of peptide synthetases recruits oxygenases crucial for glycopeptide biosynthesis


Non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) mega-enzyme complexes are modular assembly lines that are involved in the biosynthesis of numerous peptide metabolites independently of the ribosome1. The multiple interactions between catalytic domains within the NRPS machinery are further complemented by additional interactions with external enzymes, particularly focused on the final peptide maturation process. An important class of NRPS metabolites that require extensive external modification of the NRPS-bound peptide are the glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs), which include vancomycin and teicoplanin. These clinically relevant peptide antibiotics undergo cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidative crosslinking of aromatic side chains to achieve their final, active conformation. However, the mechanism underlying the recruitment of the cytochrome P450 oxygenases to the NRPS-bound peptide was previously unknown. Here we show, through in vitro studies, that the X-domain, a conserved domain of unknown function present in the final module of all GPA NRPS machineries, is responsible for the recruitment of oxygenases to the NRPS-bound peptide to perform the essential side-chain crosslinking. X-ray crystallography shows that the X-domain is structurally related to condensation domains, but that its amino acid substitutions render it catalytically inactive. We found that the X-domain recruits cytochrome P450 oxygenases to the NRPS and determined the interface by solving the structure of a P450–X-domain complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the modification of peptide precursors by oxygenases in vitro—in particular the installation of the second crosslink in GPA biosynthesis—occurs only in the presence of the X-domain. Our results indicate that the presentation of peptidyl carrier protein (PCP)-bound substrates for oxidation in GPA biosynthesis requires the presence of the NRPS X-domain to ensure conversion of the precursor peptide into a mature aglycone, and that the carrier protein domain alone is not always sufficient to generate a competent substrate for external cytochrome P450 oxygenases.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:1


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