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Nature子刊:英国学者发现人天生音乐节奏感

摘要 : 近日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下子刊《Nature Human Behaviour》杂志在线发表了英国爱丁堡大学Andrea Ravignani研究员的一篇研究论,论文发现没有接受任何音乐培训的人也能使用可预测的音乐节拍写歌,这表明人类天生具有某些音乐特性。

 近日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下子刊《Nature Human Behaviour》杂志在线发表了英国爱丁堡大学Andrea Ravignani研究员的一篇研究论,论文发现没有接受任何音乐培训的人也能使用可预测的音乐节拍写歌,这表明人类天生具有某些音乐特性。

之前,日本研究人员就试图回答音乐的哪些方面即便在多种文化中也始终如一。他们分析了全世界数百个音乐记录,并鉴别出9个区域共有的18个特征,其中6个与节奏有关。在新研究中,比利时布鲁塞尔自由大学认知学家Andrea Ravignani和同事聚焦了这6个特征。

研究组召集了48位非音乐专业人士,让他们8人一组,重复电脑生成的12个随机节拍,并且这些节拍不具有上述6个特征。每组第一个人试着模仿计算机的这段“乐曲”,下一个人则模仿上一位,以此类推。

在最后一位参与者“表演”结束后,有趣的事情发生了:随机的拍子变成了易于学习且高度结构化的“乐曲”。此外,研究人员还指出,这些乐曲包含了所有6个共性特征。

这种相似源于生物学还是文化?即便不是音乐家,一个成年人也通常会暴露在大量音乐中。Ravignani认为,工作记忆是生物学约束的一个案例,这能塑造人类的音乐选择参数。

如果像一些科学家指出的那样,工作记忆一次只能处理5~7个元素,那人们很难在一定时间内处理12个节拍。但如果将这些节拍有规律地变成小组和重复元素,人们就有可能将其压缩到适合工作记忆的极限。

原文链接:

Musical evolution in the lab exhibits rhythmic universals

原文摘要:

Music exhibits some cross-cultural similarities, despite its variety across the world. Evidence from a broad range of human cultures suggests the existence of musical universals 1 , here defined as strong regularities emerging across cultures above chance. In particular, humans demonstrate a general proclivity for rhythm 2 , although little is known about why music is particularly rhythmic and why the same structural regularities are present in rhythms around the world. We empirically investigate the mechanisms underlying musical universals for rhythm, showing how music can evolve culturally from randomness. Human participants were asked to imitate sets of randomly generated drumming sequences and their imitation attempts became the training set for the next participants in independent transmission chains. By perceiving and imitating drumming sequences from each other, participants turned initially random sequences into rhythmically structured patterns. Drumming patterns developed into rhythms that are more structured, easier to learn, distinctive for each experimental cultural tradition and characterized by all six statistical universals found among world music 1 ; the patterns appear to be adapted to human learning, memory and cognition. We conclude that musical rhythm partially arises from the influence of human cognitive and biological biases on the process of cultural evolution 3 .

来源: Nature Human Behaviour 浏览次数:0

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