DOI：10.1038/nature16996 作者：Joshua Quick
摘要 : 近日，国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下《Nature》杂志在线发表一项新研究展示了便携式基因组测序仪在这次疫情中起到的重要作用。研究人员用这些测序仪在几内亚建立了“行李箱中的基因组测序实验室”，对埃博拉患者的样本进行实时测序，严密监控了埃博拉疫情的发展。
研究人员在几内亚测序了142个埃博拉样本，为世界卫生组织提供了非常详细的数据，帮助传染病学家阻止病毒的传播。“过去基因组测序需要大型、复杂而且昂贵的设施。便携式DNA测序系统让我们能够实时监控疫情发展和病原体演化，直接指导人们的应对措施，”Birmingham大学的Dr Nick Loman说。
The Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for over 28,599 cases and more than 11,299 deaths1. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable to characterize the infectious agent and determine its evolutionary rate. Genome sequencing also allows the identification of signatures of host adaptation, identification and monitoring of diagnostic targets, and characterization of responses to vaccines and treatments. The Ebola virus (EBOV) genome substitution rate in the Makona strain has been estimated at between 0.87 × 10−3 and 1.42 × 10−3 mutations per site per year. This is equivalent to 16–27 mutations in each genome, meaning that sequences diverge rapidly enough to identify distinct sub-lineages during a prolonged epidemic2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Genome sequencing provides a high-resolution view of pathogen evolution and is increasingly sought after for outbreak surveillance. Sequence data may be used to guide control measures, but only if the results are generated quickly enough to inform interventions8. Genomic surveillance during the epidemic has been sporadic owing to a lack of local sequencing capacity coupled with practical difficulties transporting samples to remote sequencing facilities9. To address this problem, here we devise a genomic surveillance system that utilizes a novel nanopore DNA sequencing instrument. In April 2015 this system was transported in standard airline luggage to Guinea and used for real-time genomic surveillance of the ongoing epidemic. We present sequence data and analysis of 142 EBOV samples collected during the period March to October 2015. We were able to generate results less than 24 h after receiving an Ebola-positive sample, with the sequencing process taking as little as 15–60 min. We show that real-time genomic surveillance is possible in resource-limited settings and can be established rapidly to monitor outbreaks.
来源： Nature 浏览次数：0