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Nature子刊:中科院南京土壤所揭示气候条件变化对土壤微生物群落结构的影响

摘要 : 中国科学院南京土壤研究所孙波课题组基于中科院鹰潭、封丘、海伦、封丘农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站建立的我国东部温度梯度带的土壤置换试验(2005-),首次揭示了跨气候带土壤微生物群落演替及功能基因组对气候条件变化的响应机制,建立了功能基因与土壤硝化潜势和呼吸强度的定量关系。

 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B)“土壤-微生物系统功能及其调控”和国家自然科学基金重点项目(41430856)的资助下,中国科学院南京土壤研究所孙波课题组基于中科院鹰潭、封丘、海伦、封丘农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站建立的我国东部温度梯度带的土壤置换试验(2005-),首次揭示了跨气候带土壤微生物群落演替及功能基因组对气候条件变化的响应机制,建立了功能基因与土壤硝化潜势和呼吸强度的定量关系。

研究结果表明,气候变暖(土壤南移)和气候变冷(土壤北移)显著改变了潮土中土壤微生物群落结构,群落相似性表现出显著的时间衰减关系(time –decay relationship)。相比潮土原位的演替速率(w=0.046,P<0.001),土壤南移对微生物群落演替速率的促进作用(w=0.094, P<0.001))高于土壤北移(w=0.058, P<0.001),说明温度促进微生物的演替和竞争(代谢理论)。不同微生物对气候变化敏感性分异,放线菌门与厚壁菌门最敏感,变形菌门抗性最强。气候变暖对微生物群落结构演替的影响更为显著,与温度升高后微生物的代谢速率与种群间竞争关系增加有关 (Liang Y, et al. The ISME Journal, 2015)。气候变暖(土壤南移)显著增加了功能基因的多样性。氮循环功能基因丰度显著增加,且氮循环功能基因与土壤硝化显著正相关(r > 0.56, P< 0.001);碳循环功能基因(如碳固定、碳降解、甲烷循环等)丰度显著增加,且与土壤二氧化碳呼吸通量显著正相关(r = 0.72, P< 0.020)(Zhao et al. The ISME Journal, 2014)。气候变冷(土壤北移),土壤微生物生物量、群落结构都显著改变。气候条件(年平均温度、相对湿度)、土壤理化性质(pH、氨氮、有效氮)及植被是影响微生物群落结构的主要因素。氨氧化过程功能基因(amoA及amoB)的平均丰度均与土壤硝化潜势呈显著正相关(Yang et al. Environmental Microbiology, 2014)。于此同时,发现与裸地相比,种植作物增加了核心(Core)氮转化基因丰度和网络(fMENs)交互作用,关键基因由固氮基因转变为固氮+反硝化+硝化基因(汪峰,科学通报,2014)。上述结果为丰富跨气候带土壤微生物功能多样性对气候变化的响应提供了理论依据。


跨气候带微生物群落结构和功能基因演替

原文链接:

Long-term soil transplant simulating climate change with latitude significantly alters microbial temporal turnover

原文摘要:

To understand soil microbial community stability and temporal turnover in response to climate change, a long-term soil transplant experiment was conducted in three agricultural experiment stations over large transects from a warm temperate zone (Fengqiu station in central China) to a subtropical zone (Yingtan station in southern China) and a cold temperate zone (Hailun station in northern China). Annual soil samples were collected from these three stations from 2005 to 2011, and microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing microbial 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq technology. Our results revealed a distinctly differential pattern of microbial communities in both northward and southward transplantations, along with an increase in microbial richness with climate cooling and a corresponding decrease with climate warming. The microbial succession rate was estimated by the slope (w value) of linear regression of a log-transformed microbial community similarity with time (time–decay relationship). Compared with the low turnover rate of microbial communities in situ (w=0.046, P<0.001), the succession rate at the community level was significantly higher in the northward transplant (w=0.058, P<0.001) and highest in the southward transplant (w=0.094,P<0.001). Climate warming lead to a faster succession rate of microbial communities as well as lower species richness and compositional changes compared with in situ and climate cooling, which may be related to the high metabolic rates and intense competition under higher temperature. This study provides new insights into the impacts of climate change on the fundamental temporal scaling of soil microbial communities and microbial phylogenetic biodiversity.

来源: The ISME Journal 浏览次数:0

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