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Nature:冰下湖泊Whillans 湖中有丰富微生物

摘要 : 美国路易斯安那州立大学和蒙大拿州立大学等处的研究人员首次描述栖息的冰下湖深南极冰层下面的微生物,揭示维持这些微生物群落的复杂代谢过程。相关文章发表于2014年8月20日的《Nature》杂志上。
Morphological diversity of microbial cells in the SLW water column.

南极冰川下湖泊中是否有微生物生命一直是一个有争议的问题,因为当发现在钻探过程中可能发生了污染时,早期获得的结果便打了折扣。Whillans 湖是利用卫星数据在不到十年前发现的,位于西南极Whillans Ice Stream (WIS)下游大约800米的冰下,是一个庞大的、不断演变的冰下排水网的一部分。

这项研究是对南极冰下水直接取样的第一项研究,在其中对WISSARD钻探项目获得的沉积物所做分析显示,Whillans 湖的湖水含有超过3900种不同类型的细菌和古菌,其中包括与能氧化亚硝酸盐的贝塔变形菌“Candidatus Nitrotoga arctica”密切相关的一种细菌,后者占序列数据的13%。

这个湖的湖水还含有一系列不同的代谢活性微生物,其中很多似乎都从正在融化的冰和从冰下的岩石及沉积物获得营养物。

原文摘要:

A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet

Brent C. Christner, John C. Priscu, Amanda M. Achberger, Carlo Barbante, Sasha P. Carter, Knut Christianson, Alexander B. Michaud, Jill A. Mikucki, Andrew C. Mitchell, Mark L. Skidmore, Trista J. Vick-Majors & the WISSARD Science Team

Liquid water has been known to occur beneath the Antarctic ice sheet for more than 40 years, but only recently have these subglacial aqueous environments been recognized as microbial ecosystems that may influence biogeochemical transformations on a global scale. Here we present the first geomicrobiological description of water and surficial sediments obtained from direct sampling of a subglacial Antarctic lake. Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) lies beneath approximately 800 m of ice on the lower portion of the Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) in West Antarctica and is part of an extensive and evolving subglacial drainage network5. The water column of SLW contained metabolically active microorganisms and was derived primarily from glacial ice melt with solute sources from lithogenic weathering and a minor seawater component. Heterotrophic and autotrophic production data together with small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and biogeochemical data indicate that SLW is a chemosynthetically driven ecosystem inhabited by a diverse assemblage of bacteria and archaea. Our results confirm that aquatic environments beneath the Antarctic ice sheet support viable microbial ecosystems, corroborating previous reports suggesting that they contain globally relevant pools of carbon and microbes that can mobilize elements from the lithosphere and influence Southern Ocean geochemical and biological systems.

对应Nature杂志: 2014年8月21日Nature杂志精选

来源: Nature 浏览次数:53

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