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英国科学家评估H10流感病毒流行可能性

摘要 : 5月29日在线发表于《自然》杂志的研究显示,虽然H10N8病毒能够感染人类细胞,但它对和禽类细胞结合及感染禽类细胞都更有偏好。科学家目前不认为H10N8病毒能够进行人际传播,如果要在人群中大范围传播,此病毒需要获得偏好与人类细胞结合的变异。

为了研究H10N8病毒适应人类细胞的潜力,英国伦敦国家医学研究所医学研究委员会Steven Gambin和研究团队研究了一种H10禽流感病毒的血凝素(可以与细胞表面受体结合的蛋白质)的结构与受体结合特征。研究结果显示,该病毒对人类受体有足够的亲和能力,能够感染人类,但是该病毒对禽类受体的结合能力要强150倍。

人类呼吸道中禽流感病毒受体上的黏蛋白很可能阻止了该病毒在人类中广泛传播,研究人员指出,这些黏蛋白在病毒感染细胞之前就将其扫荡了。作者同时也发现H10血凝素和其人类受体的结合结构与1918年H1N1大流感和2013年H7流感病毒有相似之处,但是大流行的病毒相对于禽类受体,对人类受体的偏好是禽类H10病毒所没有的。研究人员总结道,对于此病毒亚型的监控应把重点放在检测那些让H10血凝素的受体结合位点减少对禽类受体的偏好,从而更易人际传播的变异上。

原文摘要:

Receptor binding by H10 influenza viruses

Sebastien G. Vachieri Xiaoli Xiong Patrick J. Collins Philip A. Walker Stephen R. MartinLesley F. Haire Ying Zhang John W. McCauley Steven J. Gamblin John J. Skehel

H10N8 follows H7N9 and H5N1 as the latest in a line of avian influenza viruses that cause serious disease in humans and have become a threat to public health. Since December 2013, three human cases of H10N8 infection have been reported, two of whom are known to have died. To gather evidence relating to the epidemic potential of H10 we have determined the structure of the haemagglutinin of a previously isolated avian H10 virus and we present here results relating especially to its receptor-binding properties, as these are likely to be major determinants of virus transmissibility. Our results show, first, that the H10 virus possesses high avidity for human receptors and second, from the crystal structure of the complex formed by avian H10 haemagglutinin with human receptor, it is clear that the conformation of the bound receptor has characteristics of both the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus and the human H7 viruses isolated from patients in 2013 (ref. 3). We conclude that avian H10N8 virus has sufficient avidity for human receptors to account for its infection of humans but that its preference for avian receptors should make avian-receptor-rich human airway mucins an effective block to widespread infection. In terms of surveillance, particular attention will be paid to the detection of mutations in the receptor-binding site of the H10 haemagglutinin that decrease its avidity for avian receptor, and could enable it to be more readily transmitted between humans.

来源: 中国科学报 浏览次数:24

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