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Nature:中国学者利用基因组测序揭示兰科起源

摘要 : 2017年9月14日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志在线发表了深圳市兰科植物保护研究中心刘仲健研究组等的一篇研究论文,论文报道了深圳拟兰的基因序列。

2017年9月14日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志在线发表了深圳市兰科植物保护研究中心刘仲健研究组等的一篇研究论文,论文报道了深圳拟兰的基因序列。

深圳拟兰是生长在中国东南部的一种自花传粉兰花,研究发现为种类繁多且覆盖广泛的兰科植物的起源及演化带来新见解。兰科植物约占开花植物种类的10%,且形态及习性各异。它们几乎成功占领了世界上每一处栖息地。拟兰属和另一兰花属分化时间很早,并形成相对于其他兰科植物的姐妹谱系。研究组发表了其中一个成员——深圳拟兰的全基因组序列。他们还呈现了其他三种亚科兰花的转录组数据(控制有机体基因表达的一组RNA分子)及另一个亚科中两个种的高质量基因组数据。

研究人员发现深圳拟兰提供了全基因组重复的清晰证据,这种全基因组重复在所有兰花中都有体现,且出现在它们分化前不久。通过与其他兰科植物和开花植物比较,作者重筑了一种祖先兰花的“基因工具包”,它让人们对导致兰科历史上重大演化的基因机制有更多了解。这些演化包括唇瓣(花朵上吸引昆虫的“嘴唇”)和繁殖结构合蕊柱的产生,以及附生状态(生长在其他植物上的能力)的形成。

原文链接:

The Apostasia genome and the evolution of orchids

原文摘要:

Constituting approximately 10% of flowering plant species, orchids (Orchidaceae) display unique flower morphologies, possess an extraordinary diversity in lifestyle, and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on Earth1, 2, 3. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica4, a representative of one of two genera that form a sister lineage to the rest of the Orchidaceae, providing a reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor of all extant orchids and improving our understanding of their origins and evolution. In addition, we present transcriptome data for representatives of Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae and Orchidoideae, and novel third-generation genome data for two species of Epidendroideae, covering all five orchid subfamilies. A. shenzhenica shows clear evidence of a whole-genome duplication, which is shared by all orchids and occurred shortly before their divergence. Comparisons between A. shenzhenica and other orchids and angiosperms also permitted the reconstruction of an ancestral orchid gene toolkit. We identify new gene families, gene family expansions and contractions, and changes within MADS-box gene classes, which control a diverse suite of developmental processes, during orchid evolution. This study sheds new light on the genetic mechanisms underpinning key orchid innovations, including the development of the labellum and gynostemium, pollinia, and seeds without endosperm, as well as the evolution of epiphytism; reveals relationships between the Orchidaceae subfamilies; and helps clarify the evolutionary history of orchids within the angiosperms.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0

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