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Nature封面故事: 鳗草的全基因组序列

摘要 : 本期Nature杂志封面所示为受损海草草场的边缘,显示了暴露的根茎和根,它们的作用是固碳、稳定底土和为地球上生产力最高、生物多样性最大的生态系统之一提供基本支持。

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本期Nature杂志封面所示为受损海草草场的边缘,显示了暴露的根茎和根,它们的作用是固碳、稳定底土和为地球上生产力最高、生物多样性最大的生态系统之一提供基本支持。该照片是在芬兰西南 “群岛海”(Archipelago Sea)的Kolaviken附近拍摄的。鳗草(Zostera marina)在整个北半球广泛分布,因此它在生态上相当重要,但同其他海草一样,其沿海生境也属于世界上最为濒危的生态系统。Jeanine Olsen 及同事报告了鳗草的全基因组序列。他们的分析有助于认识与 “回到大海”(back to the sea)逆向演化轨迹相关的演化变化,后者发生在被子植物的这个分支,其中包括全部气孔基因的丢失和硫酸化的细胞壁多糖(它们与巨藻的相似度大于与植物的相似度)的存在。封面摄影:Pekka Tuuri。


The genome of the seagrass Zostera marinareveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea


Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7

来源: Nature 浏览次数:1


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