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Nature:美学者发现人类用眼观察的能力是一种遗传影响

摘要 : 2017年7月10日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下《Nature》杂志在线发表了美国埃默里大学医学院Warren Jones研究员的一篇研究论文,研究显示人类成长初期只能“用眼观察”来收集信息,这种能力是可遗传的,而自闭症患者的此功能受损。

2017年7月10日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团旗下《Nature》杂志在线发表了美国埃默里大学医学院Warren Jones研究员的一篇研究论文,研究显示人类成长初期只能“用眼观察”来收集信息,这种能力是可遗传的,而自闭症患者的此功能受损。

Warren Jones研究员及其同事开展了一系列眼动追踪实验来评估人类面对社交场景时的差异,包括对面孔和相似面孔的关注水平,以及单次眼动的时间、方向和目标。测试对象是338名幼儿,其中有166名同卵双胞胎和异卵双胞胎、88名被诊断患有自闭症谱系障碍的非双胞胎和84名对照独生子女。

研究团队发现,同卵双胞胎之间的反应是类似的(一致性达91%);而异卵双胞胎的一致性较低(35%),这表明这一类行为受遗传因素很大影响。此外,遗传最高的特征,包括对脸部、眼睛和嘴巴区域的偏好性关注,在自闭症儿童身上也有所减少。

研究人员表示,在人类还不能伸手、爬或走的阶段,只能“用眼观察”来收集信息,这就是所谓社交视觉参与——而这是人类在发育过程中探索和理解社会行为的一个关键方面,无论对自闭症患者还是健康人群都是如此。

论文作者总结称,该发现有助于进一步理解一种遗传特性是如何影响人类与周围环境互动的。尽管此前已有其他研究探讨了类似概念,比如将自闭症儿童的发育情况与正常发育的同龄儿童做对比,但这是首次向人们展示一种直接可追踪的遗传影响。

原文链接:

Infant viewing of social scenes is under genetic control and is atypical in autism

原文摘要:

Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage1, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces2, face-like stimuli3 and biological motion4. This capacity—social visual engagement—shapes typical infant development from birth5 and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism6. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information7. In a series of eye-tracking experiments conducted with 338 toddlers, including 166 epidemiologically ascertained twins (enrolled by representative sampling from the general population), 88 non-twins with autism and 84 singleton controls, we find high monozygotic twin–twin concordance (0.91) and relatively low dizygotic concordance (0.35). Moreover, the characteristics that are the most highly heritable, preferential attention to eye and mouth regions of the face, are also those that are differentially decreased in children with autism (χ2 = 64.03, P < 0.0001). These results implicate social visual engagement as a neurodevelopmental endophenotype not only for autism, but also for population-wide variation in social-information seeking8. In addition, these results reveal a means of human biological niche construction, with phenotypic differences emerging from the interaction of individual genotypes with early life experience7.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0

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