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Nature:德国学者揭示清除入侵植物利于当地生物

摘要 : 2017年1月31日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志在线发表了德国科学家的一篇研究论文,研究表示清除入侵植物利于当地生物生长。

2017年1月31日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志在线发表了德国科学家的一篇研究论文,研究表示清除入侵植物利于当地生物生长。

清除入侵性物种可谓是一件永无休止的苦工,一些生态学家质疑是否值得付出这些努力。被人引入新生态系统的植物和动物往往会受到指责,因为它们会让本地动植物受到排挤,还会扰乱重要的交互作用,比如传粉。但科学家没有足够数据帮助他们判断清除入侵性植物是否会产生作用,并重塑健康的生态系统。

来自非洲塞舌尔群岛(印度洋中一个群岛)的新发现表明,辛苦工作(和金钱)投入会对传粉者——包括昆虫、鸟类和爬行动物——产生很大的益处,也会为受到它们帮助的本地植物带来益处。

研究人员清除了马埃岛上4座山的近4万株入侵灌木。他们随后仔细监测了传粉者所造访的留下来的植物,这些传粉者包括蜜蜂、蝴蝶、甲壳虫、鸟和蜥蜴等,它们会给当地的福禄桐菌灌木授粉。

经过收集8个月内连续1500小时的观察结果,他们发现与控制区(单独留下入侵植物)相比,实验区内传粉者的数量以及与其交互的植物数量增加了20%。也就是说,那些额外的传粉交互会产生果实。实验区内的本地植物也比控制区的植物开了更多花,结了更多果实。

原文链接:

Ecosystem restoration strengthens pollination network resilience and function

原文摘要:

Land degradation results in declining biodiversity and the disruption of ecosystem functioning worldwide, particularly in the tropics1. Vegetation restoration is a common tool used to mitigate these impacts and increasingly aims to restore ecosystem functions rather than species diversity2. However, evidence from community experiments on the effect of restoration practices on ecosystem functions is scarce3. Pollination is an important ecosystem function and the global decline in pollinators attenuates the resistance of natural areas and agro-environments to disturbances4. Thus, the ability of pollination functions to resist or recover from disturbance (that is, the functional resilience)5, 6 may be critical for ensuring a successful restoration process7. Here we report the use of a community field experiment to investigate the effects of vegetation restoration, specifically the removal of exotic shrubs, on pollination. We analyse 64 plant–pollinator networks and the reproductive performance of the ten most abundant plant species across four restored and four unrestored, disturbed mountaintop communities. Ecosystem restoration resulted in a marked increase in pollinator species, visits to flowers and interaction diversity. Interactions in restored networks were more generalized than in unrestored networks, indicating a higher functional redundancy in restored communities. Shifts in interaction patterns had direct and positive effects on pollination, especially on the relative and total fruit production of native plants. Pollinator limitation was prevalent at unrestored sites only, wher the proportion of flowers producing fruit increased with pollinator visitation, approaching the higher levels seen in restored plant communities. Our results show that vegetation restoration can improve pollination, suggesting that the degradation of ecosystem functions is at least partially reversible. The degree of recovery may depend on the state of degradation before restoration intervention and the proximity to pollinator source populations in the surrounding landscape5, 8. We demonstrate that network structure is a suitable indicator for pollination quality, highlighting the usefulness of interaction networks in environmental management6, 9.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0

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