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摘要 : 本周发表在《Scientific Reports》上发表南京大学曹芳与张燕琳(Yan-Lin Zhang)的一项关于中国城市空气污染的研究


本周发表在《Scientific Reports》上发表南京大学曹芳与张燕琳(Yan-Lin Zhang)的一项关于中国城市空气污染的研究,文章显示中国城市人口的PM2.5暴露浓度约为60 微克每立方米,3倍于全球平均值。中国城市中仅有9%的人口居住在符合当前的中国国家空气质量标准的环境条件下,这警示中国正面临空气污染所引起的健康风险。该项研究依据2014年4月份到2015年4月份中国190个主要城市空气质量监测网络的数据的分析,揭示了空气污染物PM2.5(直径小于2.5微米的颗粒物)在空间,季节和每天不同时间段的变化。自从2013年底开始,一个全国性的空气质量监测网络一直在运作,使用950个监测站监测中国190个城市的空气质量。通过分析一年的空气质量监测数据,研究者发现PM2.5的浓度季节差异显著,冬季最高夏季最低,并且在190个城市中只有25个能满足中国国家空气质量标准。他们的分析表明,中国北方的PM2.5浓度普遍高于中国南方。此外,中国西北部和中西部春季PM2.5浓度较高可能是与沙尘气溶胶有关,而中国东部秋天的PM2.5高浓度则受到了收获季节开放式的生物质燃烧污染物的影响。另外他们表示一些城市的出现的PM2.5浓度下午最低夜晚最高的现象很可能是大气边界层高度和人为排放强度变化的结果。


Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in China at a city level


This study presents one of the first long term datasets including a statistical summary of PM2.5 concentrations obtained from one-year monitoring in 190 cities in China. We found only 25 out of 190 cities could meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, and the population-weighted mean of PM2.5 in Chinese cities are 61 μg/m3, ~3 times as high as global population-weighted mean, highlighting a high health risk. PM2.5 concentrations are generally higher in north than in south regions due to relative large PM emissions and unfavorable meteorological conditions for pollution dispersion. A remarkable seasonal variability of PM2.5 is observed with the highest during the winter and the lowest during the summer. Due to the enhanced contributions from dust particles and open biomass burning, high PM2.5 abundances are also found in the spring (in Northwest and West Central China) and autumn (in East China), respectively. In addition, we found the lowest and highest PM2.5 often occurs in the afternoon and evening hours, respectively, associated with daily variation of the boundary layer depth and anthropogenic emissions. The diurnal distribution of the PM2.5-to-CO ratio consistently displays a pronounced peak during the afternoon periods, reflecting a significant contribution of secondary PM formation.

来源: Scientific Reports 浏览次数:0


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