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Nature:美国学者开发新型CRISPR/Cas基因编辑系统

摘要 : 2016年12月21日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志在线发表了美国加州大学Jillian F. Banfield研究员的一篇研究论文,论文报告了两种新型的CRISPR/Cas基因编辑系统。

2016年12月21日,国际学术权威刊物自然出版集团《Nature》杂志在线发表了美国加州大学Jillian F. Banfield研究员的一篇研究论文,论文报告了两种新型的CRISPR/Cas基因编辑系统。

此次,美国加州大学伯克利分校研究人员吉利安·本菲尔德及其同事,分析了上万新改造的基因组,这些基因组来自在地下水、土壤、婴儿肠道和其他各种环境中发现的微生物群落,结果研究人员发现了两种新型CRISPR/Cas系统,他们将其分别称为CRISPR/CasX和CRISPR/CasY。随后,这两种系统在CRISPR/Cas9系统的发现者之一詹妮弗·杜德纳的实验室接受了检测,其活性得到证实。

新型CRISPR/Cas系统将作为一种基因组编辑工具,被研究人员广泛用于精准添加、删除或修改DNA片段。在CRISPR-Cas中的Cas,指的是在预定位置剪切双链DNA的DNA剪切酶。在最新的研究中,论文作者还报告了在古菌域首次发现Cas9,这一点尤为引人关注,因为过去认为,缺乏细胞核的原核生物都是没有此类系统的。

原文链接:

New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes

原文摘要:

CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA1,2. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions in which a single Cas protein bound to RNA recognizes and cleaves targeted sequences3,4. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled their repurposing as a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research5. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving untapped the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured. metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms6,7. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identified novel CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet identified. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in E. coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows access to an unprecedented diversity of genomes whose content will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0

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