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摘要 : 本期Nature封面所示为秘鲁首都利马位于城乡接合部的一个贫穷棚户区,名叫 “Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores”

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本期Nature封面所示为秘鲁首都利马位于城乡接合部的一个贫穷棚户区,名叫 “Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores”。绘制抗生素抗性基因的分布和扩散图是公共卫生方面的一项优先任务。Gautam Dantas及同事定性了来自拉丁美洲两个低收入社区的细菌群落结构和抗性基因交换网络,这两个社区分别是萨尔瓦多首都圣萨尔瓦多以南35公里的一个由自耕农组成的村庄和秘鲁首都利马西南大约15公里的沙丘地带的一个棚户区。通过对数百个相互联系的人类粪便和环境样本进行功能基因组学研究和全元基因组测序(whole-metagenome sequencing),作者发现,不同生境的“抗性组” (resistome)的结构一般是由细菌系统发育 (bacterial phylogeny)沿生态梯度决定的,但关键抗性基因能穿过这些边界。他们还对粪便管理方式在防止抗性基因扩散中所起作用进行了评估。综合起来,这项工作为对抗生素抗性基因在各种不同环境中的传播进行定量风险评估和监测奠定了基础。


Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats


Antibiotic-resistant infections annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. This problem is exacerbated by exchange of resistance genes between pathogens and benign microbes from diverse habitats. Mapping resistance gene dissemination between humans and their environment is a public health priority. Here we characterized the bacterial community structure and resistance exchange networks of hundreds of interconnected human faecal and environmental samples from two low-income Latin American communities. We found that resistomes across habitats are generally structured by bacterial phylogeny along ecological gradients, but identified key resistance genes that cross habitat boundaries and determined their association with mobile genetic elements. We also assessed the effectiveness of widely used excreta management strategies in reducing faecal bacteria and resistance genes in these settings representative of low- and middle-income countries. Our results lay the foundation for quantitative risk assessment and surveillance of resistance gene dissemination across interconnected habitats in settings representing over two-thirds of the world’s population.

来源: Nature 浏览次数:0


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